PANCA YADNYA

Panca is Five ( 5 )Yadnya is Rituals
Panca Yadnya means five rituals which consist of
1. Dewa Yadnya
2. Pitra Yadnya
3. Rsi Yadnya
4. Manusa Yadnya
5. Bhuta Yadnya

  Rituals or yadnya is a part of Balinese duty in their life by presenting offerings to
  the God called Dewa Yadnya, offerings addressed to the spirits is Bhuta yadnya, 
  offerings to the Ancestors called Pitra yadnya, offerings who addressed to Priests
  or Holy people is Rsi yadnya, offerings who addressed to the human is called Manusa
  Yadnya. 

  Below are Manusa Yadnya process:

  1. The ceremony of pregnancy (megedong-gedongan)
     At the age of about 6-7 months of pregnancy a ceremony is held for the embryo
     and also for its parents, from this stage the character of the children can be 
     formed,
     as every parents wish to have good baby, normal and healthy. The ceremony is
     held at home or in the spring and from now the mother is advised to spend time
     as much as possible to listen holy song "kidung and kekawin" of holy story
     Ramayana and Mahabharata until her baby is born. The husband stays as much as
     possible with his wife and he lets his hair long and from this stage until the baby is
     born he does not have hair cut in order he does not look cramming as before. 
     The suggestion may be to avoid him from girls or women who may like him. 
     Traditionally long hair of a Balinese man is a sign that his wife is  being pregnant.

  2. The ceremony of a baby has just born (mebuhu-buhu)
     In the same day when the baby is born a small ceremony is held at home to bury 
     the baby's placenta. The placenta should be very clean and should be handed by
     right hand otherwise when the baby grow-up he will become left handed. Yet, 
     traditionally in Bali to give or receive one must use the right hand. It is impolite
     to do so by left hand. 
     The ceremony is also for the four companions of the baby as describes in the
     Kanda empat Sari that a baby is born accompanied by other four companions 
     spiritually they are named Yanta, Krepa, Bhuta and Bhutakala Surnamed Anggapati,
     Prajapati, Banaspati and Banas Patiraja and their physical figures are placenta,
     blood fetus and maniatik liquo. The four   spiritual companions are as the 
     counterpart in life time of the baby. So they must be respected otherwise they 
     will disturb the baby. 

  3. The ceremony when the baby at age of 12 days (ngeroras rahinanin).
     Twelve days after the birth a cleansing ceremony is held purposely for the impure
     state of the mother and then she may get her husband to do the household 
     duties and also from this time she may enter temples, before this, since the baby
     was born she is not allowed at all for. 

  4. The ceremony when the baby at age of 42 days (mecolong). 
     This ceremony is purposely in order the baby is able to differentiate between good
     and bad and also hoping the baby will follow the way of truth, perfect blooming
     like flowers. A cooking pot, bud of banana's flower, symbolizes these purposes.

  5. The ceremony at age of 105 days (nyambutin)
     At the age of 105 days the baby touches the ground for the first time and from
     this time the baby is the full members of the family, before this stage he is
     considered like divine. A little shrine (plangkiran) is decorated for the dwelling
     place of Sang Hyang Kumara the deity of the baby, wish for protection and also
     to ensure the baby will be healthy and happy. 
 
  6. The ceremony at age of 210 days (otonan)
     At the age of 210 days the baby celebrates its first birthday and is formally
     accepted to worship the ancestors and from now on this day is celebrated 
     every 210 days or every 6 months wuku calendar as the birthday.

  7. Ceremony at the coming of age (ngraja swala) 
     The coming of age of a child is at the first menstruation for the girl and laugher
     sound for the boy. The ceremony is asking purification blessing of any stains and
     to announce to the neighbors or the community member that there is a new
     young woman or young man in their society.

  8. Tooth filing ceremony (Mepandes)
     This ceremony can be done after adolescent or the coming of age of about 
     14-15 years old, the six upper tooth including the canine are filed to symbolize 
     the six evil spirits in his/her body named Sad Ripu which caused conflict in all
     human are now overcome, such as :  
     1. greediness      4. like to lie
     2. rudeness        5. like to be praised
     3. wrathfulness    6. like to slander.
    And from now they are considered as fully women and men of course they start
    renouncing the childlike and so on.

  9. Wedding Ceremony
     Marriage is a must for the Balinese people to continue the generation and to
     keep the house private including the family temple. So a new couple is expected
     to have children.  
     In Bali is known with two different customs of getting marriage called kawin lari or
     marriage by elopement and the other one is married by proposal, both are legal, 
     more than 90% the marriages are by and the rest are by proposal, married by
     elopement is more romantic, they choose their partners by their own choice until
     both (girl and boy) really like each-other and then they pick the day for running
     away. The boy will keep the girl in his friend's home and as soon as possible he has
     to report to the cheap of the communal which then the new couple are protected
     by the community members, no strangers are allowed to come to the room where
     the new couple are hiding. After the sun is setting the new couple send a message
     to the girl's parent to tell what is happen, usually the message consists of two
     cheeps of communal "kelihan adat and kelihan dinas", and one or two relatives of
     the boy, they must bring a little lamp. Otherwise the girl's parent may refuse. 
     Usually when the girl left her home for marriage running away she takes the best
     dresses and if possible to put offerings of canangsari at her family temple to
     represent that she goes away by her own choice in order the family is not so 
     panic. 
     After three days or in selected day a formal ceremony is arranged to formalize
     that the new couple is groom and bride and as soon as the ceremony over they
     are considered as husband and wife. 
     The wedding ceremony is not attended by the bridge's family non-of the relative
     either and there is no dowry at all. In the same day or a day after the wedding
     ceremony the groom and the bride will go for a visit to the bride's parent to
     apologize of what they have done, usually they are accompanied by the whole
     community members and the close friends of the groom and bride but before
     they come a delegation is sent to tell that the groom and bride are going for
     a visit, if they are welcomed a visit can be done otherwise not at all that means
     the situation is in a critical and sad and also the young couple may    never go
     to her parent's home at all that means as well they are not blessed. A nice
     technique can be done as long as the young couple calm and wait until a baby
     is born just take the baby home usually most of the critical problems sorted out
     with tears go by.  

 10.CREMATION CEREMONY
    The cremation ceremony is carried out when people die especially for the Hindu
    Balinese with great preparations some days before. It could be done directly after
    people died or by burying the death body first at the cemetery ground. When the
    family has enough preparation or financial, so the body is taken back and cremated
    it's bone. The cremation ceremony commonly spends much money. The main purpose
    of cremation ceremony is to return the five elements of human nature. Those five
    elements are fire, water, earth, wind, and ether. In Balinese is known as "Panca
    Maha Buta". Followed by a certain ceremony and offerings, these five elements,
    except the element of water will return back to their nature respectively. 
    The element of water will be returned by taking the ash and throw it to the sea or
    river flows to the sea. Higher priest at cemetery yard leads the ceremony.
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